Journal of Management & Business Studies (JMBS) is one of the official journals of the University College of Yayasan Pahang Malaysia and a double-blind peer-reviewed international journal. JMBS aims to provide a forum for the dissemination of theory and research in all areas of business, management, economics, accounting, marketing, finance and administrative studies which would be of interest to academics, practitioners, and policy makers. All papers are subject to a double-blind peer-review process based on an initial screening by the editor criteria for evaluation include a significant contribution to the field, conceptual quality, appropriate methodology and clarity of exposition. The journal is published online once a year. Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original, and full-length articles that are not under review in any other journal.