The Importance of Parental Involvement in Early Childhood Education for Children Under 4-Year Old

  • Mohd Nizam Naqiyuddin Ahmad Sobri University College of Yayasan Pahang
  • Nur Farah Ain Che Soh University College of Yayasan Pahang
  • Nur Atiqah Liyana Mohd Roziman University College of Yayasan Pahang
Keywords: Early Childhood, Education, Parenting, Parenting styles


Parents’ involvement in children's education has been considered one of the important aspects of children’s ongoing learning process and development success. The Malaysian government policy and initiative has introduced the term partnership to describe parents, schools and teachers regarding their involvement in children's education. Parents know their children best more than anyone, and settings which refer to the teacher, school or centre should prepare and provide for the children’s individual needs. This will help to increase children’s progress in their learning and development, resulting in better outcomes for the children. The objective of the study was to identify and analyse parents’ views on their involvement in their children’s education. The research project is a small-scale qualitative study that used semi-structured interviews to gather data. Data was gathered from the small sample of the setting population in order to gain insights into the samples’ perspective on the parents’ involvement in the children’s education. This study concluded that parents as respondents believe and are aware that they play an important role in their children’s learning process and also development.


Abdullah, A.G.K., Seedee, R., Alzaidiyeen, N.J., Ahmad, A.S., Alzeydeen, H.K., Al-Awabdeh, A.H. (2011). An investigation of teachers’ attitudes towards parental involvement. Educational Research (ISSN: 2141-5161) 2(8), 1402-1408.
Adhikari, H. (2012). Anxiety and depression: Comparative study etween working and non-working mothers. Global Journal of Human Social Science Sociology, Economics & Political Science, 1(12), 1-9.
Ahmad, I. and Said, P. (2013). Role of school principal in promotion of school home relatioship: case of government secondary school in khyber pakthunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 4(1), 115-124.
Alias, R., Alias, N.A., Ibrahim, A.B., and Jalaluddin, J. (2013). Proposed technology solutions for special educational needs (sen) learners: Towards inclusive education in malaysian universities. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 3(2), 206-211.
Almani, A.S., Abro, A., and Mugheri, R.S. (2012). Study of the effects of working mothers on the development of children in pakistan. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(11), 164-171.
Arain, M., Campbell, M.J., Cooper, C.L., and Lancaster, G.A. (2010). What is a pilot or feasibility study? A review of current practice and editorial policy. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 10(67), 2-7.
Assaiqeli, A. (2013). Processes and source of linguistic knowledge: Explorations in the theories of language learning. International Journal of English and Literature, 4(4), 146-159.
Cai, L. T., Teck, H.L., Kumarasuriar, V., Wai, M.H. (2012). Parental authority, parent-child relationship and gender differences: A study of college students in the malaysian context. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 6(2), 182-189.
Chohan, B.I., and Khan, R.M. (2010). Impact of parental support on the academic performance and self concept of the student. Journal of Research and Reflections in Education, 4(1), 14 -26.
Danso, J. (2014). Examining the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among professional working mothers in kumasi metropolis of ghana. International Journal of Nursing, 1(1), 11-24.
Dima I.C., Man M., and Kot S. (2010). Use of abraham maslow's motivation theory for setting consumers' satisfaction- non- satisfaction. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 2(), 2-7.
Dissanayake, K.M. (2014). Interactional approach to EAP curriculum design: proposing a conceptual schema. Malaysian Journal of Research, 2(1), 62-72.
Dongre, A.R., Deshmukh, P.R., Kalaiselvan, G. and Upadhyaya, S. (2008). Application of qualitative methods in health research: An overview. Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences, 8(4), 1-5. Educational Research, 94:1, 42-54.
Enemuo, J. O. and Obidike, N. D. (2013). Assessment of parental involvement in children’s literacy development. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS), 4(5), 807-814.
Fagbeminiyi, F.F. (2011). The role of parents in early childhood education: a case study of ikeja, lagos state, nigeria. Global Journal of Human Social Science, 11(2), 43-54.
Francis, N.H., and William, A.K. (2006). A brief analysis of abraham maslow’s original writing of self-actualizing people: A study of psychological health. Doctor Forum National Journal of Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1), 1-7.
Georgiou, S.N., and Tourva, A. (2007). Parental attributions and parental involvement. Social Psychological Education, 10, 473-482.
Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-607.
Grace, A.M., Olojo., O.O., and Aina, F.F (2012). roles of parent on the academic performance of pupil in elementary schools. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2(1), 196-201.
Hamid, R.A., and Amin, S.M. (2014). Work-family conflict and work-family enrichment and their consequences in malaysia. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research ,19(5), 729-733.
Heng, K.C. (2008). Childcare in malaysia: Then and now. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 2(2), 31-41.
Ismail, A., and Abdullah, A.G.K. (2013). Parents' involvement in malaysian autonomous schools. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3(3), 657-668.
Kaiser, A.P., and Hancock, T.B. (2003). Teaching parents’ new skills to support their young children’s development. Infants and Young Children, 16(1), 9-21.
Kalpana, T. (2014). A constructivist perspective on teaching and learning: A conceptual framework. International Research Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 27-29.
Kaur, A. (2013). Maslow’s need hierarchy theory: Applications and criticisms. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies., 3(10), 1061-1064.
Kotb, S.A.M., Mohamed, A.G., Mohamed, E.M. and Khalek, E.M.A. (2012). Knowledge and practices of working mother about breastfeeding and weaning in assiut city, Egypt. Life Science Journal, 9(1), 803-808
Kotirde, I.Y., and Yonus, J.M. (2014). Parent participation and school child education quality in secondary school in Nigeria. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(6), 511-516.
Kura, S.Y.B. (2012). Qualitative and quantitative approaches to the study of poverty: Taming the tensions and appreciating the complementarities. The Qualitative Report, 17(34), 1-19.
Lameck, W.U. (2013). Sampling design, validity and reliability in general social survey. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(7), 212-219.
Low, S.F., and Ishak, Z. (2013). Direct and indirect effect of self- concept and socioeconomic status on student' academic achievement. Educational Research International, 1(2), 40-50.
Mafa, O. and Makuba. E., (2013). The involvement of parents in the education of their children in zimbabwe’s rural primary schools: The case of matabeleland north province. Journal of Research & Method in Education, 1(3), 37-43.
Marican, S., Sabil, S., Zakaria, R.H., and Rahman, A.A. (2011). Can supportive management contribute to the well being of Muslim working women in Malaysia? African Journal of Business Management, 5(12), 4883-4890.
Matthews, B and Ross, L (2010). Research Methods: A Practical Guide for the Social Sciences. Pearson Education Limited.
Mumin, N., Ai, Y.O., and Siganul, R.S. (2014). The rhetoric and reality of alternative work arrangements (AWA) in Malaysia. International Journal of Commerce, Business and Management (IJCBM), 3(1), 2319–2828.
Mushquash, C.J., and Bova, D.L (2007). Cross-cultural assessment and measurement issues. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 13(1), 54-67.
Pena, D. C. (2000). Parent Involvement: Influencing factors and implications. Journal of Journal of Educational Research, 94(1), 42-54.
PERMATA NEGARA, Jabatan Perdana Menteri (2014). Course of Care and Early Education of Children PERMATA Negara, 3rd Ed. Percetakan Info Meditasi sdn. bhd.
Phan, T. (2004). A Qualitative Study of Vietnamese Parental Involvement and their High Academic Achieving Children. Journal of Authentic Learning, 1, 51-62.
Pound, L. (2008). How Children Learn, 1st Ed. Step Forward Publishing Limited.
Rafiq, H.M.W., Fatima, T., Sohail, M.M., Saleem, M.M and Khan, M.A. (2013). Parental involvement and academic achievement; a study on secondary school students of Lahore, Pakistan. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(8), 209-221.
Rokis, R. (2014). Work-care balance among parents-workers in Malaysian urban organizations: Role and quality of children’s daycare centers. American International Journal of Social Science, 3(1), 109-119.
Ryan, R., Coughlan, M., and Cronin, P. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research; Qualitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16(12), 738-744.
Saad, S., Ibrahim, H., and Nayan, N. (2013). Towards holistic inclusion in malaysia: Knowledge of special educational need among in-distant learning students. Proceedings of International Conference on Special Education, 673-684.
Sabil, S., and Marican, S. (2011). Working hours, work-family conflict and work-family enrichment among professional women: A malaysian case. International Conference on Social Science and Humanity IPEDR, 5, 206-209.
Sapungan, G.M. and Sapungan, R.M. (2014). Parental involvement in child’s education: Importance, barriers and benefits. Asian Journal of Management Sciences and Education, 3(2), 42-49.
Selvam, S.K.P. (2013). A study on relationship between parental education and student achievement. Education Research Journal, 3(3), 75-82.
Seth, M. R., and Ghormode, K.K. (2013). The impact of neglectful parenting style on educational performance of learners at high school level. International Educational E-Journal, {Quarterly}, 2(5), 2277-2456.
Shabani, K., Khatib, M., and Ebadi, S. (2010). Vygotsky's zone of proximal development: Instructional implications and teachers' professional development. English Language Teaching, 3(4), 237-248.
Shah, M.A.A., and Anwar, M. (2014). Impact of parent’s education and involvement on children performance in Southern Punjab Pakistan. International Journal of Research (IJR), 1(5), 173-180.
Sharma, S. (2013). Qualitative approaches in mathematics education research: challenges and possible solutions. Education Journal 2013, 2(2), 50-57.
Shields, L. (2003). The difference between quantitative and qualitative research. Paediatric Nursing, 15(9), 1-1.
Smith, J., Wohlstetter, P., Kuzin, C.A., and De Pedro, K. (2011). Parent involvement in urban charter schools: New strategies for increasing participation. The School Community Journal, 21(1), 71-96.
Talib, J. (2009). Effects of parents’ work conditions on children’s school achievement: A study of dual-earner families. International Review of Business Research Papers, 5(3), 170-178.
Tavallaei, M., and Talib, M.A. (2010). A general perspective on role of theory in qualitative research. The Journal of International Social Research, 3(11), 571-579.
Tewksbury, R. (2009). Qualitative versus quantitative methods: Understanding why qualitative methods are superior for criminology and criminal justice. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Criminology, 1(1), 38-58.
Thabane, L., Jinhui, M., Rong, C., Ji, C., Ismaila, A., Rios, L.P., Robson, R., Thabane, M., Giangregorio, L., Goldsmith, C.H. (2010). A tutorial on pilot studies: what, why and how. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 10(1), 1471-2288.
Tomlinson, C.A., Brighton, C., Hertberg, H., Callahan, C.M., Moon, T.R., Brimijoin, K., Conover, L.A., and Reynolds, T. (2003). Differentiating instruction in response to student readiness, interest, and learning profile in academically diverse classrooms: A review of literature. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 27(2/3), 119-145.
Vellymalay, S.K.N. (2011). A study of the relationship between indian parents' education level and their involvement in their children’s' education, Kajian Malaysia, 29(2), 47-65.
Wasim, M.A., Herani, G.M., Farooqui, W., and Qureshi, M.A. (2008). Family types, authority structure and women workers in sindh labor force: Problems and prospects. Indus Journal of Management & Social Sciences, 2(1), 29-49.
Wee, J.W.W.B., Nor, S.M., 'Kasa, Z., and Foo, S.F (2001). Models of school-family partnerships: The malaysian context. Pertanika Journal Social Science and Humanities, 9(1), 35-47.
Williams, C. (2007). Research methods. Research Methods Journal of Business and Economic Research, 5(3), 65-73.
Yoshikawa, H., Weisner, T.S., Kalil, A. and Way, N. (2008). Mixing qualitative and quantitative research in developmental science: Uses and methodological choices. Developmental Psychology, 44(2), 344-354.
Zakaria, A.R., Hasim, Z., Salleh, U.K.M., and Yusoff, J.Z.M. (2013). Family context and its relationship with parental involvement in the education of secondary school of children. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3 (4), 1063-1076.