EAL Instructors’ Attitudes towards Game-based Learning Adoption in Education: An Exploration of Obstacles
The objective of the current study is to explore teachers’ attitudes towards obstacles in game-based learning (GBL) in English as an additional language (EAL) context. The study used a survey with open-ended questions and interviews to collect data. The survey data was gathered from eight university EAL teachers. Four of the survey respondents participated in interviews to explore the obstacles to using GBL. The qualitative data was analyzed through thematic analysis and description. As a result of the analysis of open-ended questions and interview data, three themes associated with the obstacles of GBL namely, lack of time, lack of resources, and students’ preferences emerged. The implication of the study is that teachers acknowledge the benefits of GBL, but they need support for further professional development.
Abdel-Maksoud, N. F. (2018). "The Relationship between Students’ Satisfaction in the LMS" Acadox" and Their Perceptions of Its Usefulness, and Ease of Use". Journal of Education and Learning, 7(2), 184–190.
Alabbasi, D. (2018). Exploring Teachers’ Perspectives towards Using Gamification Techniques in Online Learning. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 17(2), 34–45.
Albirini, A. (2006a). Teachers’ attitudes toward information and communication technologies: The case of Syrian EFL teachers. Computers and Education, 47(4), 373–398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2004.10.013
Albirini, A. (2006b). Teachers’ attitudes toward information and communication technologies: The case of Syrian EFL teachers [Pergamon]. Computers and Education (Vol. 47, Issue 4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2004.10.013
Alfulaih, W. K. (2018). The impact of using games on developing Saudi female EFL students’ speaking skills. British Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 19(2), 14–23.
AlMarshedi, A., Wanick, V., Wills, G. B., & Ranchhod, A. (2017). Gamification and behaviour. In Gamification (pp. 19–29). Springer.
Andrade, F. R., Mizoguchi, R., & Isotani, S. (2016). The bright and dark sides of gamification. In International conference on intelligent tutoring systems (pp. 176-186). Springer, Cham.
Asiri, M. J. (2019). Do teachers’ attitudes, perception of usefulness, and perceived social influences predict their behavioral intentions to use gamification in EFL classrooms? Evidence from the middle east. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(3), 112–122.https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.61.2019.73.112.122
Barab, S., & Dede, C. (2007). Games and immersive participatory simulations for science education: An emerging type of curricula. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16(1), 1–3.
Barab, S., Thomas, M., Dodge, T., Carteaux, R., & Tuzun, H. (2005). Making learning fun: Quest Atlantis, a game without guns. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(1), 86–107.
Bernard, H. R. (2002). Research Methods in Anthropology. 3rd edition. AltaMira Press.
Blair, E. (2015). A reflexive exploration of two qualitative data coding techniques. Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences, 6(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.2458/v6i1.18772
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.
Bruder, P. (2014). Game on: gamification in the classroom. Retrieved January 15, 2017, fromhttps://www.njea.org/news-and-publications/njea-review/may-2014/gamification-in-the-classroom
Buckley, P., & Doyle, E. (2017). Individualising gamification: An investigation of the impact of learning styles and personality traits on the efficacy of gamification using a prediction market. Computers & Education, 106, 43–55.
Chen, Y. (2018). Understanding how educational gamification impacts users’ behavior: a theoretical analysis. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information and Education Technology, 154–159.
Cornillie, F., Thorne, S. L., & Desmet, P. (2012). Digital games for language learning: from hype to insight?
Creswell, J. W. (1999). Mixed-method research: Introduction and application. In Handbook of educational policy (pp. 455–472). Elsevier.
Cresswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed method research. 2nd Sage.
Cresswell, J. W. (2012). Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Educational Research. https://Doi. Org/10.4135/9781483349435, 10
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Steps in conducting a scholarly mixed methods study. DBER Speaker Series.
Davis, F. D. (1985). A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems: Theory and results. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: defining" gamification". Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, 9–15.
Escudero Mancebo, D., Cámara Arenas, E., Tejedor García, C., González Ferreras, C., & Cardeñoso Payo, V. (2015). Implementation and test of a serious game based on minimal pairs for pronunciation training. ISCA Workshop on Speech and Language Technology in Education.
Fan, K. K., Xiao, P. wei, & Su, C. H. (2015). The effects of learning styles and meaningful learning on the learning achievement of gamification health education curriculum. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 11(5), 1211–1229. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2015.1413a
Fernandez-Rio, J., de las Heras, E., González, T., Trillo, V., & Palomares, J. (2020). Gamification and physical education. Viability and preliminary views from students and teachers. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 25(5), 509-524.
Franciosi, S. J. (2017). The effect of computer game-based learning on FL vocabulary transferability. Educational Technology & Society, 20(1), 123–133.
Galbis-Córdoba, A., Martí-Parreño, J., & Currás-Pérez, R. (2017). Education Students’ Attitude towards the Use of Gamification for Competencies Development. Journal of E-Learning and Knowledge Society, 13(1).
Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., Borg, W. R., & Mendel, P. C. (2007). A guide for preparing a thesis or dissertation proposal in education, for Gall, Gall, and Borg’Educational research: an introduction’and’Applying Educational Research’. Pearson Education.
Gallego, M. D., Luna, P., & Bueno, S. (2008). User acceptance model of open-source software. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 2199–2216.
Gardner, C., & Amoroso, D. L. (2004). Development of an instrument to measure the acceptance of internet technology by consumers. In 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2004. Proceedings of the (pp. 10-pp). IEEE.
Garland, C. M. (2015). Gamification and implications for second language education: A meta-analysis. [Unpublished Master dissertation]. St. Cloud State University.
Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2013). Social motivations to use gamification: An empirical study of gamifying exercise. ECIS 2013 - Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems.
Hanus, M. D., & Fox, J. (2015). Assessing the effects of gamification in the classroom: A longitudinal study on intrinsic motivation, social comparison, satisfaction, effort, and academic performance. Computers & Education, 80, 152–161.
Kim, J. T., & Lee, W. H. (2015). Dynamical model for gamification of learning (DMGL). Multimedia Tools and Applications, 74(19), 8483–8493. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-013-1612-8
Kim, B., Park, H., & Baek, Y. (2009). Not just fun, but serious strategies: Using meta-cognitive strategies in game-based learning. Computers & Education, 52(4), 800-810.
Kiryakova, G., Angelova, N., & Yordanova, L. (2014). Gamification in education. Proceedings of 9th International Balkan Education and Science Conference.
Landers, R. N., Auer, E. M., Helms, A. B., Marin, S., & Armstrong, M. B. (2019). Gamification of adult learning: Gamifying employee training and development. The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior, 271-295.
Lifanova, A., Ngan, H. Y., Okunewitsch, A., Rahman, S., Guzmán, S., Desai, N., Özsari, M., Rosemeyer, J., Pleshkanovska, R., & Fehler, A. (2016). New locals: Overcoming integration barriers with mobile informal and gamified learning. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Communication Technologies in Education (ICICTE), Rhodes, Greece, 7–9.
Martí-Parreño, J., Seguí-Mas, D., & Seguí-Mas, E. (2016). Teachers’ Attitude towards and Actual Use of Gamification. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 228(June), 682–688. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.104
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Sage Publications.
Perry, B. (2015). Gamifying French Language Learning: A Case Study Examining a Quest-based, Augmented Reality Mobile Learning-tool. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 2308–2315.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.892
Rawendy, D., Ying, Y., Arifin, Y., & Rosalin, K. (2017). Design and development game Chinese language learning with gamification and using mnemonic method. Procedia Computer Science, 116, 61–67.
Sánchez-Mena, A. A., & Martí-arreño, J. (2017). Drivers and barriers to adopting gamification: Teachers’ perspectives. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 15 (5), pp434-443.
Sánchez-Mena, A., Queiro-Ameijeiras, C., Galbis-Córdova, A., Martí-Parreño, J., & Álvarez-Jareño, J. (2016). Student teachers’ intention to use gamification. Proceedings of ICERI2016 Conference, Seville, Spain.
Santos-Villalba, M. J., Leiva Olivencia, J. J., Navas-Parejo, M. R., & Benítez-Márquez, M. D. (2020). Higher Education Students’ Assessments towards Gamification and Sustainability: A Case Study. Sustainability, 12(20), 8513.
Šćepanović, S., Žarić, N., & Matijević, T. (2015). Gamification in higher education learning–state of the art, challenges and opportunities. Proc. 6th Int. Conf. e-Learn., 128–134.
Shatz, I. (2015). Using gamification and gaming in order to promote risk taking in the language learning process. Proceedings of the 13th Annual MEITAL National Conference. Haifa, Israel: Technion, 227–232.
Siemon, D., & Eckardt, L. (2017). Gamification of teaching in higher education. In Gamification (pp. 153-164). Springer.
Sobocinski, M. (2018). Necessary definitions for understanding gamification in education a short guide for teachers and educators. Working paper. https://www. researchgate. net/publication/319646230.
Ssekibaamu, J. B. (2015). Technology and education: A quantitative study of the acceptance of gaming as a teaching tool using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Capella University.
Stemler, S. (2000). An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 7(1), 17.
Teo, T., Zhou, M., Fan, A. C. W., & Huang, F. (2019). Factors that influence university students’ intention to use Moodle: A study in Macau. Educational Technology Research and Development, 67(3), 749–766.
TürkDilKurumu, 2017–TürkDilKurumu (2017). Oyun. Retrieved March 20, 2017, from http://www.tdk.gov.tr
Ucus, S. (2015). Elementary school teachers’ views on game-based learning as a teaching method. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 401–409.
Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 425–478.
Wright, A., Betteridge, D., & Buckby, M. (1984). Games for Language Learning. Cambridge University Press.
Yang, J. C., Quadir, B., & Chen, N.-S. (2016). Effects of the badge mechanism on self-efficacy and learning performance in a game-based English learning environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(3), 371–394.
Yoo, C., Kwon, S., Na, H., & Chang, B. (2017). Factors affecting the adoption of gamified smart tourism applications: An integrative approach. Sustainability, 9(12), 2162.
Yüksel, M., & Durmaz, A. (2016). The Effect of Perceived Socially Motivated Gamification on Purchase Intention: Does It Really Work? Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 2(3), 15–25.
Zain, M., Rose, R. C., Abdullah, I., & Masrom, M. (2005). The relationship between information technology acceptance and organizational agility in Malaysia. Information & Management, 42(6), 829–839.
Zarzycka-Piskorz, E. (2016). Kahoot it or not? Can games be motivating in learning grammar? Teaching English with Technology, 16(3), 17–36.
Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Yasir Babar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.